Impact Assessment of Nigeria Finance Acts on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs)


Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are the backbone of Nigeria’s economy, contributing significantly to employment generation and economic growth. Recognizing their vital role, the Nigerian government has implemented several Finance Acts over the years, each with the aim of fostering a conducive environment for SMEs to thrive. In this article, we conduct an impact assessment of the Nigeria Finance Acts on SMEs, highlighting the key provisions and their implications on these essential businesses.

1. Nigeria Finance Act 2019: Tax Relief for SMEs

The Nigeria Finance Act 2019 introduced crucial tax relief measures for SMEs, acknowledging their importance in the economic ecosystem. The act exempted SMEs with an annual turnover below a specified threshold from the payment of company income tax (CIT). This move aimed to reduce the tax burden on smaller businesses and facilitate their growth. Additionally, the act lowered the Value Added Tax (VAT) rate from 5% to 7.5%, indirectly benefiting SMEs by reducing input costs.

Impact: The tax relief provided in the Finance Act 2019 proved to be a boon for SMEs, as it improved their cash flow, allowing them to allocate more resources towards business expansion, investment, and job creation.

2. Nigeria Finance Act 2020: Mitigating the Impact of COVID-19

The Nigeria Finance Act 2020 responded to the economic challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. To alleviate the burden on SMEs during the pandemic, the act offered tax incentives to companies that donated to the COVID-19 relief fund and provided tax exemptions on certain medical supplies. This measure aimed to support SMEs in continuing their operations during an unprecedented period of uncertainty.

Impact: The tax incentives and exemptions introduced in the Finance Act 2020 provided much-needed financial relief for SMEs during the pandemic, allowing them to prioritize business continuity and support their communities during the crisis.

3. Nigeria Finance Act 2021: Expanding the Tax Base

The Nigeria Finance Act 2021 focused on broadening the tax base, including the introduction of taxes on foreign digital services and other measures. While these provisions were primarily aimed at multinational corporations, SMEs engaged in digital activities were also impacted. SMEs operating in the digital space had to comply with new tax regulations, which added to their compliance burden.

Impact: SMEs in the digital sector faced challenges in adapting to the new tax requirements, which necessitated a deeper understanding of the evolving tax landscape and proactive compliance efforts.

4. Nigeria Finance Act 2022: Tax Dispute Resolution

The Nigeria Finance Act 2022 established a tax tribunal to expedite the resolution of tax disputes. This provision aimed to provide a more efficient and accessible platform for SMEs to address tax-related issues promptly.

Impact: The establishment of the tax tribunal offered SMEs a more streamlined and transparent dispute resolution mechanism, reducing the time and resources spent on resolving tax disputes.

5. Nigeria Finance Act 2023: Incentives for SMEs

The Nigeria Finance Act 2023 introduced additional incentives to support SMEs. These measures included potential tax breaks, simplified tax procedures, or tax credits to ease the tax burden on smaller businesses and promote their growth.

Impact: The incentives outlined in the Finance Act 2023 are poised to bolster the competitiveness of SMEs and encourage them to invest in their expansion, innovation, and talent development.


The Nigeria Finance Acts have had a mixed impact on SMEs, with several provisions offering tax relief and incentives to support their growth, while others introduced challenges related to compliance in the digital economy. Overall, the government’s efforts to promote SME development through tax reforms are commendable, as SMEs continue to be a critical driver of Nigeria’s economic progress.

As an accounting firm, we advise SMEs to stay informed about the changing tax landscape and leverage available incentives to their advantage. Professional tax advisory services can help SMEs navigate the complexities of the Finance Acts, ensuring compliance and unlocking opportunities for sustained growth and success in Nigeria’s dynamic business environment.

For professional advice on Accountancy, Transfer Pricing, Tax, Assurance, Outsourcing, Company Registration, and CAC matters, please contact Sunmola David & CO (Chartered Accountants & Tax Practitioners) at You can also reach us via WhatsApp at +2348038460036