FIRS and Cryptocurrency Transactions: Navigating Tax Implications for Virtual Assets.

Bitcoin mtiririko kutoka kwa ubadilishaji hufikia kiwango cha juu zaidi kwa  mwezi


Cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, and others, have rapidly gained popularity as alternative forms of digital currency and investments in Nigeria. However, as the use of cryptocurrencies grows, the Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS) has been paying closer attention to the tax implications of cryptocurrency transactions. This article explores the evolving landscape of cryptocurrency taxation in Nigeria and offers insights on how individuals and businesses can navigate the associated tax obligations.

Cryptocurrency Taxation in Nigeria:

  1. Capital Gains Tax (CGT): Cryptocurrency gains in Nigeria are subject to Capital Gains Tax. When you dispose of cryptocurrency by selling, trading, or exchanging it for goods or services, any profit you make is considered a capital gain. It is essential to keep accurate records of your transactions to calculate your tax liability correctly.
  2. Value Added Tax (VAT): As of the FIRS’ clarification in 2020, cryptocurrency transactions are subject to Value Added Tax. This means that when you purchase goods or services using cryptocurrency, VAT is applicable, just as it would be with traditional currency.
  3. Income Tax: If you receive cryptocurrency as payment for goods or services, it’s considered income, and you are required to report it as such for income tax purposes. The value of the cryptocurrency at the time of receipt should be used for taxation.

Navigating Cryptocurrency Taxation:

  1. Record-Keeping: Accurate record-keeping is critical when dealing with cryptocurrency. Keep detailed records of all transactions, including dates, amounts, and parties involved. This information will be invaluable when calculating your tax liabilities.
  2. Tax Reporting: Ensure that you report your cryptocurrency transactions accurately on your tax returns. Failure to do so could result in penalties or legal consequences.
  3. Professional Guidance: Cryptocurrency taxation can be complex, and the regulations are still evolving. Seek professional advice from tax experts or accounting firms with cryptocurrency expertise to ensure compliance and optimize your tax position.
  4. Cryptocurrency Exchanges: Be aware of the tax implications of using cryptocurrency exchanges. Some exchanges provide transaction history reports that can assist with tax reporting.
  5. Stay Informed: Stay updated on FIRS guidelines and regulations related to cryptocurrency taxation. The tax treatment of cryptocurrencies may change over time, and it’s essential to remain compliant with current laws.

Cryptocurrency and International Transactions:

For businesses engaged in international transactions using cryptocurrency, additional considerations may apply:

  1. Transfer Pricing: Multinational companies using cryptocurrencies for cross-border transactions should adhere to FIRS transfer pricing regulations. Transactions involving related parties must be conducted at arm’s length, with proper documentation to support pricing decisions.
  2. Foreign Exchange Regulations: Businesses should also consider the implications of cryptocurrency transactions under Nigeria’s foreign exchange regulations. Ensure compliance with Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) guidelines when dealing with international cryptocurrency transactions.


Cryptocurrency transactions are becoming increasingly common in Nigeria, and as a result, the tax implications associated with virtual assets are coming under greater scrutiny by the FIRS. To navigate the evolving landscape of cryptocurrency taxation, individuals and businesses must maintain accurate records, report their transactions correctly, seek professional guidance, and stay informed about changing regulations. Compliance with cryptocurrency tax laws not only ensures legal adherence but also contributes to the development of a transparent and accountable digital economy in Nigeria.

For professional advice on Accountancy, Transfer Pricing, Tax, Assurance, Outsourcing, online accounting support, Company Registration, and CAC matters, please contact Sunmola David & CO (Chartered Accountants & Tax Practitioners) at Lagos, Ogun state Nigeria offices, You can also reach us via WhatsApp at +2348038460036.