VAT and Real Estate Transactions: Considerations for SMEs in Nigeria.

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Value Added Tax (VAT) is a significant component of Nigeria’s taxation framework, affecting various industries, including the real estate sector. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) play a crucial role in Nigeria’s economic growth, and as they engage in real estate transactions, understanding the implications of VAT becomes essential. This article aims to shed light on the key considerations SMEs should bear in mind when navigating VAT in real estate transactions in Nigeria.

Understanding VAT in Nigeria:

Value Added Tax is a consumption tax imposed on the value added at each stage of the supply chain, from production to final consumption. In Nigeria, the VAT Act of 1993 (as amended) governs the administration of VAT. VAT is collected by businesses on behalf of the government and is typically passed on to the consumers.

VAT and Real Estate Transactions:

The real estate sector in Nigeria has experienced significant growth in recent years, making it a focal point for both local and foreign investors. VAT implications arise at various stages of a real estate transaction, including land acquisition, construction, and property sale or lease. SMEs engaged in real estate activities must consider the following VAT aspects:

  • Input VAT: SMEs can often claim a credit for VAT paid on goods and services used in their business operations. This includes materials, labor, and services directly related to the construction or development of real estate. Ensuring proper documentation and compliance with VAT laws is crucial to substantiate these claims.
  • Output VAT: SMEs involved in the sale or lease of developed properties are required to charge and collect VAT from the buyers or lessees. It is important to accurately calculate and account for the output VAT and remit it to the tax authorities within the prescribed timeframe.
  • Zero-Rated and Exempt Supplies: Certain real estate transactions may qualify for zero-rated or exempt supplies, resulting in either a reduced VAT rate or no VAT chargeable. SMEs need to understand the criteria for such classifications and apply them correctly to avoid overcharging or undercharging VAT.
  • VAT Registration: SMEs exceeding the mandatory VAT registration threshold are required to register for VAT with the Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS). Timely registration ensures compliance and enables SMEs to fully participate in the VAT system.
  • Transitional Provisions: The introduction of VAT on real estate transactions may affect contracts entered into before the VAT regime’s implementation. SMEs must navigate these transitional provisions effectively, ensuring compliance while honoring existing agreements.
  • VAT Records and Returns: Adequate record-keeping is essential to substantiate VAT claims and comply with reporting requirements. SMEs must maintain accurate records of input and output VAT, and submit periodic VAT returns as mandated by the tax authorities.


SMEs in Nigeria’s real estate sector should approach VAT considerations with diligence and awareness. Navigating VAT in real estate transactions requires a comprehensive understanding of the relevant laws and regulations. Consulting with tax professionals or accounting firms well-versed in Nigerian VAT regulations is strongly advised to ensure compliance, accurate calculations, and optimized financial management. As SMEs continue to contribute to Nigeria’s economic growth, mastering VAT in real estate will be a pivotal factor in their success within this dynamic industry.

For professional advice on Accountancy, Transfer Pricing, Tax, Assurance, Outsourcing, online accounting support, Company Registration, and CAC matters, please contact Sunmola David & CO (Chartered Accountants & Tax Practitioners) at Lagos, Ogun state Nigeria offices, You can also reach us via WhatsApp at +2348038460036.