Transfer Pricing for Nigerian Real Estate Transactions: Best Practices.

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The Nigerian real estate sector has witnessed significant growth and investment in recent years, attracting both local and foreign investors. Real estate transactions often involve related parties, especially within multinational enterprise (MNE) structures. As a result, it is crucial for Nigerian real estate entities to ensure compliance with transfer pricing regulations to align with Nigerian tax laws and international standards. In this article, we will explore the best practices for Nigerian real estate transactions to navigate the complexities of transfer pricing effectively.

The Growing Real Estate Sector in Nigeria:

Nigeria’s real estate sector is a vital contributor to the country’s economic development, offering investment opportunities, job creation, and infrastructure development. It encompasses various activities, including property development, leasing, and sales. Given its attractiveness to investors, real estate transactions frequently involve related parties and require careful consideration of transfer pricing.

Challenges in Transfer Pricing for Real Estate:

Nigerian real estate entities may face specific challenges when managing transfer pricing:

  1. Property Valuation: Determining the fair market value of real estate properties can be complex, as property values may vary significantly based on location and other factors.
  2. Functional Analysis: A comprehensive functional analysis is necessary to identify and document the functions, assets, and risks associated with real estate transactions. This analysis forms the basis for determining the appropriateness of pricing.
  3. Comparability Analysis: Demonstrating that real estate transactions are consistent with what unrelated parties would agree to under similar circumstances can be challenging. Comparable data may be limited, especially for unique properties.
  4. Documentation Requirements: Adequate documentation of real estate transactions, including pricing methodologies, functional analyses, and any other information supporting transfer pricing decisions, is crucial to demonstrate compliance with transfer pricing regulations.

Best Practices for Real Estate Transactions:

To effectively manage transfer pricing compliance for real estate transactions, Nigerian entities should consider the following best practices:

  1. Property Valuation Expertise: Engage property valuation experts with experience in determining the fair market value of real estate properties accurately.
  2. Functional Analysis: Conduct a detailed functional analysis of the entities involved in real estate transactions to identify and document their functions, assets, and risks. Understand the value drivers associated with the properties.
  3. Documentation: Maintain comprehensive documentation that outlines the terms of real estate transactions, transfer pricing methodologies, functional analyses, and any other information supporting transfer pricing decisions.
  4. Comparability Analysis: When conducting a comparability analysis, explore alternative data sources specific to real estate transactions, such as industry-specific benchmarks, property appraisals, or rental market data.
  5. Advance Pricing Agreements (APAs): Consider negotiating APAs with Nigerian tax authorities to pre-determine the pricing of real estate transactions. APAs provide certainty and reduce the risk of disputes.

Challenges and Regulatory Environment:

Nigerian real estate entities should stay informed about regulatory developments related to transfer pricing in real estate transactions. Tax authorities may issue guidelines or regulations specific to these activities, which could impact compliance requirements.


The Nigerian real estate sector offers significant investment opportunities, but it also presents unique challenges in managing transfer pricing for related-party transactions. By following best practices, including engaging property valuation experts, conducting comprehensive functional and comparability analyses, maintaining detailed documentation, and considering APAs, Nigerian real estate entities can effectively navigate transfer pricing complexities. Transfer pricing compliance not only mitigates the risk of disputes with tax authorities but also supports the sustainable growth and development of the real estate sector in Nigeria.

For professional advice on Accountancy, Transfer Pricing, Tax, Assurance, Outsourcing, online accounting support, Company Registration, and CAC matters, please contact Sunmola David & CO (Chartered Accountants & Tax Practitioners) at Lagos, Ogun state Nigeria offices, You can also reach us via WhatsApp at +2348038460036.