The Accountant’s Guide to Conducting Internal Audits in Nigerian SMEs.


Internal auditing is an indispensable function within any organization, regardless of its size. For Small and Medium-Scale Enterprises (SMEs) in Nigeria, internal audits play a crucial role in ensuring financial integrity, compliance with regulations and the overall health of the business. In this article, we will explore the importance of internal audits for Nigerian SMEs, the key steps involved in conducting them and how accountants can effectively carry out this critical function.

The Significance of Internal Audits for Nigerian SMEs:

Internal audits are systematic, objective evaluations of an organization’s processes, controls and financial transactions conducted by an independent internal audit team or individual. For Nigerian SMEs, conducting internal audits offers several significant benefits:

  1. Risk Mitigation: Internal audits identify and assess risks that may affect the business. By proactively identifying these risks, SMEs can take measures to mitigate them and avoid potential issues in the future.
  2. Compliance Assurance: Nigerian SMEs must adhere to a variety of regulatory and tax requirements. Internal audits help ensure compliance with these regulations, reducing the risk of penalties and legal issues.
  3. Operational Efficiency: Through internal audits, SMEs can identify inefficiencies in their processes and operations. This leads to cost savings and improved overall efficiency.
  4. Fraud Prevention: Internal audits are essential for detecting and preventing fraud within the organization. They can uncover irregularities and control weaknesses that may otherwise go unnoticed.
  5. Data Accuracy: Ensuring the accuracy of financial data and reporting is paramount. Internal audits help verify the integrity of financial records, which is essential for informed decision-making.

Steps to Conducting Internal Audits in Nigerian SMEs:

  1. Planning: Begin by defining the scope and objectives of the internal audit. Identify the areas and processes that will be audited and set clear goals for the audit.
  2. Risk Assessment: Assess the risks associated with the audited areas. Consider financial, operational, compliance, and reputational risks. This step helps prioritize audit focus.
  3. Resource Allocation: Allocate the necessary resources, including personnel and technology, to conduct the audit effectively.
  4. Fieldwork: This is the core of the audit process. Accountants should gather evidence, perform tests and evaluate controls and processes. Document all findings thoroughly.
  5. Data Analysis: Utilize data analytics tools to identify anomalies, patterns, or trends in financial data. This step enhances the depth and accuracy of the audit.
  6. Reporting: Prepare a comprehensive audit report that outlines findings, identifies areas for improvement, and provides actionable recommendations. Ensure that the report is clear and concise.
  7. Communication: Present the audit findings and recommendations to relevant stakeholders, including management and the board of directors. Engage in constructive discussions and address any concerns or questions.
  8. Follow-Up: After presenting the findings, monitor and follow up on the implementation of recommended actions. This step ensures that identified issues are effectively resolved.

Effective Internal Auditing for Nigerian SMEs:

To conduct effective internal audits in Nigerian SMEs, accountants should consider the following best practices:

  1. Independence: Maintain independence and objectivity throughout the auditing process. Avoid conflicts of interest that could compromise the integrity of the audit.
  2. Continual Learning: Stay up-to-date with changes in regulations, accounting standards, and audit techniques. Continuous learning is essential for effective auditing.
  3. Communication Skills: Effective communication is critical when presenting findings and recommendations to stakeholders. Tailor the message to the audience’s level of understanding.
  4. Use of Technology: Embrace audit software and data analytics tools to enhance audit efficiency and accuracy.
  5. Documentation: Maintain detailed records of audit procedures, findings and recommendations. Proper documentation is essential for transparency and accountability.
  6. Ethical Conduct: Uphold the highest ethical standards in all audit activities. Integrity is paramount in internal auditing.


Internal audits are a cornerstone of good governance, risk management and financial integrity for Nigerian SMEs. Accountants play a pivotal role in conducting these audits to ensure that the organization operates efficiently, complies with regulations and minimizes risks. By following best practices and remaining committed to excellence, accountants can make a significant contribution to the growth and sustainability of SMEs in Nigeria’s dynamic business environment.

For professional advice on Accountancy, Transfer Pricing, Tax, Assurance, Outsourcing, online accounting support, Company Registration, and CAC matters, please contact Sunmola David & CO (Chartered Accountants & Tax Practitioners) at Lagos, Ogun state Nigeria offices, You can also reach us via WhatsApp at +2348038460036.