Key Factors Triggering a Tax Audit by FIRS: What Businesses Need to Know.





For businesses operating in Nigeria, compliance with tax regulations is a fundamental responsibility. As part of its efforts to enforce tax laws and maintain fairness in the tax system, the Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS) conducts tax audits to assess a business’s compliance. Understanding the key factors that may trigger a tax audit is crucial for businesses to proactively manage their tax affairs and minimize the risk of potential scrutiny. In this article, we will explore the essential factors that can trigger a tax audit by FIRS and offer valuable insights for businesses to ensure compliance and transparency.


  1. Inconsistent or Underreported Income:

One of the most common triggers for a tax audit is when there are discrepancies in reported income. If the income declared in a business’s tax returns does not match the income reported in other financial statements or sources, it raises a red flag for the tax authorities. Whether unintentional errors or deliberate attempts at underreporting, any inconsistency can prompt FIRS to conduct an audit to reconcile the figures and ensure accurate reporting.

To avoid such issues, businesses must maintain meticulous records and reconcile financial statements regularly to ensure consistency across all sources of income reporting.


  1. Unusually High Deductions or Exemptions:

Claiming excessive deductions or exemptions can attract the attention of the FIRS. While businesses are entitled to legitimate deductions and exemptions, excessively high claims without proper documentation or justification may be perceived as attempts to reduce tax liability fraudulently.

To safeguard against potential audit triggers, businesses must ensure that all deductions and exemptions claimed are fully supported by valid documentation and comply with relevant tax regulations.


  1. Frequent Losses or Negative Income:

Consistently reporting losses or negative income over multiple years may raise suspicions at the FIRS. While it is common for businesses to face losses in certain periods, an extended period of reporting losses might be seen as a potential indicator of tax evasion or aggressive tax planning.

Businesses experiencing losses should maintain transparent records to demonstrate valid reasons for these losses, such as expansion initiatives or cyclical industry downturns.


  1. Large Transactions or Unusual Transactions:

Large or unusual transactions, especially those involving related parties, can attract the FIRS’s attention. The tax authority may scrutinize such transactions to ensure compliance with transfer pricing rules and to prevent tax evasion through improper profit shifting.

To mitigate this risk, businesses should document all related-party transactions thoroughly, ensuring they are conducted at arm’s length and comply with transfer pricing regulations.


  1. Industry-Specific Risk Profiles:

Certain industries may have higher risk profiles for tax evasion or non-compliance, leading to a higher likelihood of tax audits. Industries known for cash transactions, such as retail, hospitality, and informal sectors, are often subject to increased scrutiny.

Businesses operating in high-risk industries should pay particular attention to their tax compliance and maintain accurate financial records to avoid any audit triggers.


  1. Random Selection or Data Analysis:

In addition to specific risk-based criteria, the FIRS may conduct random selection audits to maintain overall tax compliance. Moreover, tax authorities increasingly use data analytics and advanced technologies to identify patterns and anomalies that may indicate potential non-compliance.

To stay ahead of potential random audits, businesses should proactively monitor their tax compliance, maintain accurate records, and adopt robust internal controls.



Understanding the key factors that can trigger a tax audit by FIRS is crucial for businesses aiming to maintain transparency and compliance. Proactive measures, such as keeping accurate financial records, complying with tax regulations, and seeking professional advice when needed, can help businesses minimize the risk of tax audits. By taking a proactive approach to tax compliance, businesses can build a reputation for integrity, contribute to Nigeria’s economic development, and foster a positive relationship with tax authorities. Remember, tax audits are not always indicative of wrongdoing; they are essential tools for upholding a fair and equitable tax system in Nigeria.


For professional advice on Accountancy, Transfer Pricing, Tax, Assurance, Outsourcing, online accounting support, Company Registration, and CAC matters, please contact Sunmola David & CO (Chartered Accountants & Tax Practitioners) at Lagos, Ogun state Nigeria offices, You can also reach us via WhatsApp at +2348038460036.