CIT and Debt Restructuring: Tax Planning for Managing Debts and Financial Challenges in Nigeria.

Debt restructuring in the time of COVID-19: Private and official agreements  | CEPR


Debt restructuring is a financial strategy that many businesses in Nigeria may consider at some point to manage financial challenges and optimize their capital structure. While debt restructuring can provide relief and help companies regain financial stability, it also comes with tax implications that require careful planning. The Companies Income Tax (CIT) Act, along with other tax laws governs the tax considerations surrounding debt restructuring. In this article, we will explore key tax planning strategies for businesses undergoing debt restructuring in Nigeria.

Types of Debt Restructuring:

Debt restructuring can take various forms, each with its own tax implications:

  1. Debt Forgiveness: When a portion of debt is forgiven or written off by creditors, it may result in taxable income for the debtor.
  2. Debt Modification: Changing the terms of existing debt agreements, such as extending the repayment period or reducing interest rates can affect the tax treatment of the debt.
  3. Asset Transfers: Transferring assets to creditors in satisfaction of debt can trigger capital gains tax and other tax liabilities.

Tax Planning Strategies:

Effective tax planning is crucial for managing the tax implications of debt restructuring in Nigeria:

  1. Debt Forgiveness Exclusions: Explore potential exclusions or exemptions from taxable income resulting from debt forgiveness. For example, under the CIT Act, certain debt forgiveness related to agricultural loans may be exempt.
  2. Capital Allowances: Consider the use of capital allowances to offset taxable gains resulting from asset transfers. Proper classification of assets and documentation is essential.
  3. Tax Credits: Determine if any tax credits or incentives are available for specific types of debt restructuring such as those aimed at supporting certain industries or economic activities.
  4. Interest Deductibility: Examine the deductibility of interest expenses on restructured debt. Proper structuring may allow for continued interest deductions.
  5. Debt to Equity Conversion: Explore the possibility of converting debt to equity which may have different tax implications such as dividend tax or capital gains tax.
  6. Loss Utilization: If the company has carried forward tax losses, assess whether these can be utilized to offset any taxable gains resulting from debt restructuring.
  7. Transfer Pricing: If debt restructuring involves related parties, ensure compliance with transfer pricing regulations to determine fair market values and interest rates.

Documentation and Compliance:

Proper documentation and compliance with tax laws are essential when undertaking debt restructuring:

  1. Record-Keeping: Maintain comprehensive records of debt restructuring transactions including agreements, valuations and supporting documents.
  2. Tax Returns: Accurately report all taxable income and gains resulting from debt restructuring in your annual tax returns.
  3. Professional Guidance: Engage tax experts and legal counsel with experience in debt restructuring to ensure compliance and optimize the tax outcome.


Debt restructuring can be a viable strategy for businesses facing financial challenges in Nigeria. However, the tax implications of debt restructuring should not be overlooked. Effective tax planning, due diligence, and compliance are essential to ensuring that debt restructuring is not only financially beneficial but also tax-efficient. As the CIT Act and tax regulations evolve, staying informed and seeking professional guidance is crucial for businesses navigating the complex tax landscape associated with debt restructuring.

For professional advice on Accountancy, Transfer Pricing, Tax, Assurance, Outsourcing, online accounting support, Company Registration, and CAC matters, please contact Sunmola David & CO (Chartered Accountants & Tax Practitioners) at Lagos, Ogun state Nigeria offices, You can also reach us via WhatsApp at +2348038460036.