CIT and Capital Allowances: Maximizing Tax Deductions for Business Assets.

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Capital expenditures, such as investments in assets and equipment, are essential for business growth and sustainability. Recognizing the importance of capital investments, the Nigerian government provides tax incentives in the form of capital allowances under the Companies Income Tax (CIT) Act. Capital allowances allow businesses to deduct a portion of the cost of qualifying assets from their taxable income, reducing their tax liability. In this article, we will explore the concept of capital allowances and how businesses can make the most of them.

Understanding Capital Allowances:

Capital allowances are deductions that businesses can claim on qualifying capital expenditures. These deductions are provided to encourage investments in assets that contribute to business growth, productivity, and competitiveness. Unlike regular operating expenses, which are fully deductible in the year they are incurred, capital allowances allow businesses to recover the cost of assets over time.

Qualifying Assets for Capital Allowances:

  1. Plant and Machinery: This category includes equipment, machinery, and fixtures used in business operations.
  2. Industrial Buildings: Qualifying buildings used for manufacturing, processing, or mining activities.
  3. Commercial Buildings: Buildings used for commercial purposes, such as offices, hotels, and shops.
  4. Motor Vehicles: Vehicles used for business purposes, including cars, trucks, and buses.

Maximizing Capital Allowance Benefits:

  1. Documentation: Maintain comprehensive records of asset acquisition, including invoices, receipts, and asset registers.
  2. Asset Classification: Properly classify assets as either plant and machinery, industrial buildings, commercial buildings, or motor vehicles to ensure eligibility for capital allowances.
  3. Capital Allowance Rates: Understand the applicable capital allowance rates for each category of assets. Rates may vary, and some assets may qualify for accelerated allowances.
  4. Annual Claims: Ensure that capital allowances are claimed annually in tax returns. Failure to claim allowances may result in lost deductions.
  5. Tax Planning: Consider timing asset purchases strategically to maximize capital allowance benefits in specific tax years.
  6. Professional Guidance: Engage tax experts who can assess your capital expenditures and identify opportunities for maximizing deductions.

Benefits of Capital Allowances:

  1. Tax Savings: Capital allowances directly reduce taxable income, resulting in lower tax liabilities.
  2. Encouragement of Investment: Capital allowances encourage businesses to invest in assets that enhance productivity and competitiveness.
  3. Cash Flow Management: Deducting capital expenditures over time can improve cash flow by deferring tax payments.
  4. Asset Renewal: Capital allowances incentivize the renewal and upgrading of assets, promoting business modernization.


Capital allowances are a valuable tax incentive that can significantly reduce a company’s tax liability while promoting investment in essential assets. Nigerian businesses should proactively assess their capital expenditures and take advantage of available capital allowances to optimize their tax positions.

For professional advice on Accountancy, Transfer Pricing, Tax, Assurance, Outsourcing, online accounting support, Company Registration, and CAC matters, please contact Sunmola David & CO (Chartered Accountants & Tax Practitioners) at Lagos, Ogun state Nigeria offices, . You can also reach us via WhatsApp at +2348038460036.