Bookkeeping for Inventory Management: Tracking and Valuing Assets for Small and Medium-Scale Enterprises.

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For small and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs), efficient inventory management is crucial to maintaining a competitive edge and optimizing profitability. Proper bookkeeping practices play a vital role in tracking and valuing inventory assets accurately. In this article, we will explore the significance of bookkeeping for inventory management in SMEs, discussing best practices for tracking, valuation, and maintaining an organized inventory system.


  1. Importance of Inventory Management for SMEs: Inventory represents a significant portion of assets for many SMEs, particularly those involved in retail, manufacturing, or wholesale activities. Effective inventory management ensures that businesses maintain the right amount of stock to meet customer demands without overstocking and tying up valuable capital. Bookkeeping serves as the foundation for sound inventory management, providing essential data to optimize stock levels and streamline supply chain operations.


  1. Accurate Recording of Inventory Transactions: Bookkeeping for inventory management requires meticulous recording of all inventory-related transactions. This includes purchases, sales, returns, and any adjustments due to spoilage, damage, or theft. Accurate and timely recording of these transactions provides a clear picture of inventory levels, helps identify discrepancies, and facilitates decision-making regarding restocking or production requirements.


  1. Periodic Physical Inventory Counts: Performing regular physical inventory counts is essential to reconcile book records with the actual stock on hand. SMEs should schedule periodic inventory audits, preferably annually or quarterly, to verify the accuracy of inventory records. Any discrepancies between book records and physical counts should be investigated and corrected promptly.


  1. FIFO and LIFO Valuation Methods: Two common inventory valuation methods are FIFO (First-In, First-Out) and LIFO (Last-In, First-Out). Under FIFO, the oldest inventory is considered sold first, while under LIFO, the most recent inventory is assumed to be sold first. SMEs should choose a valuation method that aligns with their business model and industry practices. Proper bookkeeping ensures that the selected valuation method is consistently applied.


  1. Using Perpetual or Periodic Inventory Systems: SMEs can opt for either perpetual or periodic inventory systems. In a perpetual system, inventory levels are continuously updated through real-time tracking of transactions using technology like barcode scanners. In a periodic system, physical counts are conducted periodically, and inventory levels are adjusted accordingly. Bookkeeping practices must be adapted to suit the chosen inventory system, ensuring accurate and updated records.


  1. Categorizing Inventory and COGS: SMEs should categorize their inventory into appropriate groups based on product types, SKU numbers, or other relevant criteria. This categorization facilitates better tracking and analysis of inventory trends. Additionally, bookkeeping should allocate the cost of goods sold (COGS) accurately to match revenue recognition principles, thereby providing a clearer picture of the business’s financial performance.


  1. Inventory Software and Automation: Leveraging inventory management software can greatly streamline bookkeeping processes for SMEs. Inventory software automates data entry, tracks stock levels, generates reports, and integrates with accounting systems. Automation reduces manual errors, saves time, and enhances the overall efficiency of inventory management and bookkeeping.



Proper bookkeeping is essential for small and medium-scale enterprises to efficiently manage their inventory, track asset values, and optimize profitability. Accurate recording of inventory transactions, periodic physical counts, and appropriate valuation methods are critical components of effective bookkeeping for inventory management. SMEs should choose the inventory system that best suits their business needs and consider using inventory software for automation and real-time tracking. By implementing these best practices, SMEs can maintain organized and transparent inventory records, make informed decisions, and achieve sustainable growth in their respective industries. As an audit firm, we understand the importance of bookkeeping for inventory management and are committed to assisting SMEs in optimizing their financial operations and maximizing their success.


For professional advice on Accountancy, Transfer Pricing, Tax, Assurance, Outsourcing, online accounting support, Company Registration, and CAC matters, please contact Sunmola David & CO (Chartered Accountants & Tax Practitioners) at Lagos, Ogun state Nigeria offices, You can also reach us via WhatsApp at +2348038460036.